There are many types of chemical reactions. However, this question seems to be getting at the basic chemical reactions,
- Addition: a molecule or compound is synthesized
- Decomposition: a molecule or compound decomposes
- Neutralization: and acid and base "neutralize" each other
- Metathesis: ions or ionic compounds are "traded around"
- Reduction-oxidation: electrons are "traded around"
- Combustion: generally, a hydrocarbon molecule is combusted with oxygen gas to produce water and carbon dioxide
Note: Clearly there is a lot more to know about each of these reactions (e.g. if the products are insoluble, if its energetically favorable, et cetera).
Determining if a reaction is endothermic or exothermic is a function of its enthalpy of reaction. Combustion reactions are generally exothermic. We'd use thermodynamic data (commonly available in your text) otherwise to distinguish each reaction further.