What were the contributions of de Broglie, Hund, and Pauli to our understanding of the atom?

1 Answer

Answer:

See below.

Explanation:

de Broglie - particle-wave duality

Showed that electrons can act as waves, where their wavelength is inversely proportional to the electron's momentum,

#lambda=h/p#,

where:

  • #lambda# = de Broglie wavelength in #m#
  • #h# = Planck's constant (#6.626*10^-34Jcdot s#)
  • #p# = electron's momentum in #kg cdot m//s#

Hund - Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity

An orbital in a subshell tends to fill with one electron before it gets two electrons, and these electrons in singly occupied orbitals ought to have the same spin.

[NOTE: exceptions occur when the orbitals get big enough.]

Pauli - Pauli's exclusion principle

Two electrons in the same orbital cannot have the same set of four quantum numbers:

  • principal quantum number (#n#)
  • orbital angular momentum quantum number (#l#)
  • magnetic quantum number (#m_l#)
  • spin quantum number (#m_s#).

If both were to reside in the same orbital, they automatically have 3 identical quantum numbers, so their spins must be opposite.