Newton's 2nd law helps to understand this
The force required to stop a vehicle is given by Newton's second law:
Where v= final velocity and u= initial velocity. Since our final velocity is nil we can simplify to
So the force required to bring an object to a halt in a given time increases as its mass and velocity increase.
Hence a heavy vehicle moving quickly will require a larger force to stop it in the same time compared to a slower, lighter vehicle.