A "saturated solution" is one in which.....?

$\text{A. the solvent contains an amount of solute EQUAL to that which would be in equilibrium with undissolved solute.}$ $\text{B. the solvent has dissolved the maximum amount of solute.}$ $\text{C. the solvent has dissolved an unspecified amount of solute.}$ $\text{D. none of the given definitions are appropriate.}$

Feb 22, 2017

$\text{A. the solvent..............}$

Explanation:

Water is an excellent solvent for most solutes.

In a solution, the bulk phase is the $\text{solvent}$, which is conceived to $\text{dissolve}$ one or more $\text{solutes}$, which may initially be solid, liquid, or gas, and the resultant homogeneous mixture is a $\text{solution}$. If there is equilibrium between undissolved solute, and dissolved solute, as shown, the solution is said to be $\text{saturated:}$

$\text{Undissolved solute "rightleftharpoons " Dissolved solute}$

If such a solution is filtered off from the undissolved solute, the resulting $\text{filtrate}$ is known as $\text{saturated solution}$. This last definition is a very important one and specifies an equilibrium condition. A $\text{supersaturated solution}$ contains an amount of solute greater than the amount that would be in equilibrium with undissolved solute - this is a metastable condition that can be brought back to equilibrium, to saturation, by scratching the sides of the vessel, or by introducing a seed crystal, often with spectacular results.