There are many differences between electrons, protons, and neutrons. The first difference most people think of is the charge:
Electrons have a negative charge, protons have positive, and neutrons have no charge.
The next things most people think of is the difference in mass: Neutrons (
The role they play in the atom are also different, since protons and neutrons lie in the middle, close together in the nucleus, while the electrons orbit (sorta) around the nucleus. A last but crucial difference between the three is that the electron is considered a fundamental particle, not made up of anything else, while protons and neutrons are composed of quarks and gluons, and thus are not fundamental.
I hope I helped!