Question #d2ffc

1 Answer
Aug 16, 2017

The dendrites, the soma, the axon hillock, the axon, and the axon terminals.


Neurons are the basic cellular units of the nervous system. A neuron has the following parts:

A] Dendrites: Dendrites are finger- or tendril-like extensions of the neuron that increase the surface area of the cell and are responsible for picking up signals or information from other cells and transmitting it in the form of electrical impulses to the soma.

B] Soma or Cell Body: The Soma, which contains the cell nucleus, receives and passes on signals from the dendrites to the axon. It maintains the cell and keeps it functional.

C] Axon Hillock: The Axon Hillock is that part of the soma attached to the axon which acts as a signal manager or controller, sending a signal down the axon when the received signals go beyond a certain threshold limit.

D] Axon: The Axon is a long fibre that extends from the soma to the terminal endings. It transmits neural signals. The larger the axon, the faster the signal transmission. Axons can be myelinated (covered with a fatty sheath called myelin) or non-myelinated with the myelinated ones transmitting signals faster.

E] Axon Terminals: The Axon Terminals are at the end of the axon where it forms smaller branches ending in terminal buttons or vesicles that contain neurotransmitters that pass the signals across the synapse (a gap between nerve cells) to the next nerve cell.