Consider the Lewis structure below. What are the formal charges of each atom?
H = +1 (B)
O = -2 ( D)
C = +2 ( A)
N = -3 (G)
The Hydrogen loses one electron to the Oxygen which has a higher electron negativity
The Hydrogen loses one electron to the Carbon as well which also has a higher electron negativity.
The Oxygen gains one electron from the Hydrogen and one electron from the Carbon both of which have lower electron negativity.
The Carbon gains one electron from the Hydrogen (-1) and loses one electron to the Oxygen ( +1) and loses two electrons to the Nitrogen.
Nitrogen gains two electrons from the Carbon ( -2) and one electron from the Hydrogen (-1)
The total molecule will have an approximate value of zero so the charges should add up to zero.
Adding all of these up
The formal charge on every atom is zero.
Formal charge is the charge that an atom appears to have when its valence electrons are counted according to certain arbitrary rules:
- Lone pair electrons belong entirely to the atom.
- Half of the shared bonding electrons belong to the atom.
In symbols, you get the formula
#color(blue)(bar(ul(|color(white)(a/a) FC = VE – LP – 1/2BEcolor(white)(a/a)|)))" "#