Does 1 mol of something=1 mol something else? For example, is 1 mol H2O equivalent to 1 mol NaCl? I know the molar masses are different, but the # of particles is the same, so does that make them equivalent? (for the sake of creating conversion factors)
No. It all depends on the reaction.
It's not the number of particles, but the number of moles of particles that is important.
You get the numbers of moles from the coefficients in the balanced chemical equation for the reaction.
The balanced equation for the reaction between sodium and water is
2Na + 2H₂O → 2NaOH + H₂
Here you would write
2 mol H₂O = 2 mol Na and 2 mol H₂O = 2 mol NaOH, but 2 mol H₂O = 1 mol H₂.
2 mol Na = 2 mol NaOH, but 2 mol Na = 1 mol H₂.
For the reaction
N₂ + 3H₂ → 2NH₃
you would write
1 mol N₂ = 3 mol H₂; 1 mol N₂ = 2 mol NH₃; and 3 mol H₂= 2 mol NH₃.