Explain recent trends in population growth?
Depends on the region.
Wealthier countries with decreasing birth rates and greater access to contraceptives and abortions are experiencing decreases in population growth, and in some cases (such as Japan), the population is even decreasing.
Poor countries such as India, Nigeria, Kenya, etc. are beginning to transition from pre-industrial to industrial. This means their birth rate is remaining characteristically high but their death rate is falling somewhat, so they are experiencing massive booms in population.
Population growth is also somewhat linked to women's rights. Countries where women have more rights and are in control of their bodies, and have access to sex ed, tend to have less population growth. Countries like the Islamic Middle Eastern countries and some African nations and India where women are very plainly viewed as second-class citizens are experiencing huge population growth.