How can a supersaturated solution be made?
According to the solubility curve of Sodium Chloride NaCl a 40 gram sample of NaCl will dissolve in 100 grams of water at 40 C. This amount would make what is referred to as a Saturated solution. The perfect amount of solute in a given amount of a solvent at a given temperature.
If we were to increase the amount of salt in this solution at 40 C the salt would be unable to dissolve completely. We would have a Supersaturated solution. A solution that contains more solute than the solvent can hold at a given temperature.
If we were to decrease the amount of NaCl in 100 g of water at 40 C below 40 grams, we would create an Unsaturated solution. A solution that holds less solute than the solvent amount can dissolve at a given temperature.
When I make my Minute Maid Lemonade, the can suggests 41/3 cans of water for every can of concentrate. If I were to add 6 cans of water this would reduce the concentration of lemon in the water and create an unsaturated solution of lemonade. If I were to only add three cans of water my lemonade concentration would be very high and I would have a supersaturated solution.
I hope this was helpful.