# How can a type II error be avoided?

Dec 15, 2017

It cannot be avoided, only minimized.

#### Explanation:

This is an excellent example of understanding statistics as a TOOL, not an absolute! "Type I" and "Type II" errors are complementary - that is, decreasing the probability of one necessarily increases the probability of the other.

ONLY the stakeholders in a study can determine which risk is more acceptable to their decision.

In statistical hypothesis testing, a type I error is the incorrect rejection of a true null hypothesis, while a type II error is incorrectly retaining a false null hypothesis. Which incorrect conclusion would be more damaging to a physical outcome?

We "avoid" (minimize) it in a statistical study by the choice of the Type I error parameter (remember, they are complementary). The rest is just math.

Excellent examples and description:
https://infocus.emc.com/william_schmarzo/understanding-type-i-and-type-ii-errors/

https://www.stat.berkeley.edu/~hhuang/STAT141/Lecture-FDR.pdf