How do comets and asteroids escape the gravitational pull of the other entities in the solar system?
Comets and astroids are affected by the gravitational pull of other entities but have sufficient velocity to escape the gravitational force field ( usually)
Comets are pull into an elliptical orbit by the gravitational pull of the sun. Usually the comets have sufficient energy to escape and move back into deep space outside of the normal radius of the solar system. However comets are destroyed by the heat and the of gravity of the sun. ( Comets are estimated to have a life span of only 5-10,000 yearjecs maybe 20,000)
It is believed that a comet failed to escape the gravitational field of the earth and struck Siberia early in the 1900s. Comet collision might be responsible for other catastrophes in the earth's history.
Not all astroids escape the gravitational pull of other entities either. The moon is pot marked with the craters form from astroid collisions. The gulf of Mexico is thought to be the result of a massive astroid collision causing the mass extinction of the dinosaurs.
The high velocity of the comets and astroids usually allows them to escape the gravitational pull of the sun and other planets. However many Astroids and comets do collide with other objects in the solar system