How do you subtract rational numbers?
A rational number is a number that can be expressed as a fraction, for instance
Some subtractions are easy when encountering rational numbers. Here's an example problem:
What you might instantly notice, is that they both have the same denominator, it's
Whenever we have this situation, we can just subtract the nominators. The denominators stay the same.
In this case it would be:
Whenever we have two different denominators, we can't directly subtract them from each other. What we should do in this case, is make them have the same denominator.
How can you legally (without changing the expression) change something's denominator? Easy, you also change the nominator by the same multiplication factor.
To change for example the fraction
But how do you know, to what denominator they must be changed? What you're actually asking is: what number is a common multiple of the 2 denominators? This is the LCM: the Lowest Common Multiple. Why would you want that number? It's a multiple of both of the denominators, so you can easily multiply them.
An example problem for this is:
First, let's find out what the LCM is, for this we write down some multiples of both of the denominators:
What number is the lowest common factor of
Now, all we have to know is: by what number do we have to multiply
The final solution becomes:
I hope that you know understand, and that I didn't make it too complicated.