How does DNA code for proteins?
This is probably one of the most complex processes and rather difficult to explain in a short space.
These are the steps:
The DNA remains in the cell nucleus but the production of the protein occurs in the cytoplasm. This requires the help of mRNA. DNA has the code for a protein which mRNA has to copy and then take that copy out of the nucleus to an other organelle called a ribosome. There the copy is translated into the protein.
There are three types of RNA: mRNA, tRNA and rRNA.(ribosomal).
In translation, messenger RNA (mRNA) produced by transcription is decoded by a ribosome complex to produce a specific amino acid chain, or polypeptide, that will later fold into an active protein using tRNA.
The ribonucleotides are "read" by translational machinery (the ribosome) in a sequence of nucleotide triplets called codons. Each of those triplets codes for a specific amino acid. These amino acids are "added" one by one to form a protein.