How does gene regulation differ in prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

1 Answer

Gene regulation differs between prokaryotes and eukaryotes in a few ways.


There are multiple ways gene regulation differs between prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

Prokaryotics don't have a nucleus but eukaryotics do (see image below).

  • So transcription and its regulation in prokaryotics is much simpler. But the eukaryotes have to transcribe and then have a process for mRNA processing like capping, splicing and adding ply adenine tail, and then have a special mechanism to transport the processed mature mRNA to the cytoplasm from the nucleus.
  • Because prokayotes don't have a nuclear membrane, transcription and translation can occur at opposite ends of the mRNA molecule at the same time. This is not true for eukaryotes.

  • Transcription is responsible for most gene regulation in prokaryotes but in eukaryoes gene regulation is more complicated and genes are regulated before and after transcription (see image below).

  • And another difference is that eukaryotes don't express their genes all at once; they express one at a time. Prokaryotes do.

  • Prokaryotes don't contain introns. So splicing of introns and joining of exons are not needed. But in eukaryotics, splicing of introns and joining of exons is needed.