How does the liver change glucose to glycogen?
The process of glycogen synthesis is called as glycogenesis and occurs in the liver.
Glycogen is a multi branched polysaccharide made up of glucose.
The process in which glucose molecules are added to chains of glycogen for storage can be divided into the following steps :
1) Hexokinase acts on glucose and converts it into glucose 6 phosphate
2) Phospho gluco mutase converts glucose 6 phosphate into glucose 1 phosphate.
3) UDP glucose phosphorylase acts on glucose 1 phosphate converting it to UDP glucose.
4) Eight UDP glucose molecules are then added to tyrosine residue by glycogenin . Glycogenin is a homodimer with tyrosine residues , that serve as an anchor.
5) Glycogen synthatase binds chains of eight glucose monomers to the glycogen chain , by adding UDP glucose to the non reducing end of the glycogen chain.
6) Glycogen branching enzymes transfer the end of the chain to an earlier part, forming branches. These further grow by adding more glycosidic units.
Glycogenesis is controlled by hormones.