How does the octet rule relate to the formation of a bond?
Atoms have two ways to achieve an octet. They can either lose electrons or gain electrons.
Atoms in Groups 1 to 3 lose their electrons when they react. This gives them charges of +1, +2, and +3.
Atoms in Groups 15 to 17 gain electrons when they react. This gives them charges of -3, -2, and -1.
These ions then combine to form ionic compounds.
Elements In groups 14 to 17 can increase the number of electrons in their outer shells to eight by forming covalent bonds.