How does the sun affect the outer planets?
Sun does not directly affect the planets
Sun does not directly affect the planets, it's the distance that counts. If we move further away in orbits after Mars we have bigger orbits and hence longer years. For example, Earth has a year lasting 365.25 days, if we move to Mars the orbit becomes bigger, hence Mars takes about 687 days to go around the Sun once. Further more the further is the orbit is from the sun the cooler is the planet as it takes longer and longer for the sun light to reach the planet. Light from the sum reaches the Earth in 8.3 Minutes, consider Pluto about 5 Billion Kms from the sun, the sun light takes about 5.5 hours to reach Pluto.