How does water move on earth as it passes through the water cycle?
The water molecules undergo evaporation which causes them to change from liquid form to gaseous form. The gaseous molecules leave the atmosphere and return to the earth either as solid or liquid. Precipitation can be rain which is liquid, snow which is solid.
( Water can also form frost and dew directly from the atmosphere without precipitation)
The water molecules can run off the surface of earth into lakes and streams, or directly into the ocean. Most of the water in rivers eventually returns to the ocean. Some of the water evaporates on its way to the oceans. The water evaporates from the surface of the ocean being the main source of water in the atmosphere.
Ground water is often absorbed by plants. Plants transpirate returning water to the atmosphere. Both plants and animals undergo cellular respiration which turns sugars and other hydrocarbons into water which is also returned to the atmosphere.
Ground water also is returned to the atmosphere by volcanic activity.
Large amounts of water are released in volcanic explosions. Because of this the atmosphere has always had water vapor.
Some of the water in the atmosphere is broken down into Hydrogen and Oxygen. The Oxygen is used in cellular respiration to again produce water.