# How many protons, neutrons, electrons, energy levels and valence electrons does Boron (B) have?

Jul 31, 2017

For $B$, $Z = 5$, i.e. its nucleus contains 5 protons, 5 positively charged, massive particles. And if there 5 protons, the neutral atom has 5 electrons conceived to whiz about the nuclear core, with a formal $1 {s}^{2} 2 {s}^{2} 2 {p}^{1}$ configuration.
There are 2 common isotopes of boron: (i) ""^11B contains 6 neutrons, and is approx. 80% naturally abundant; and (ii) ""^10B with 5 neutrons, makes up the balance. The atomic mass of boron quoted on the Periodic Table, $10.81 \cdot g$, reflects this isotopic abundance.
Most of the time, boron forms $B {R}_{3}$ and $B {X}_{3}$ compounds, i.e. ${B}^{I I I +}$..........it can expand its valence shell to form $B {X}_{4}^{-}$ and $B {R}_{4}^{-}$ derivatives.