# How to do this regression question?

## Critics of television often refer to the detrimental effects that all the violence shown on television has on children. However, there may be another problem. It may be that watching television also reduces the amount of physical exercise, causing weight gains. A sample of $15$ 10-year-old children was taken. The number of pounds each child was overweight was recorded (a negative number indicates the child is underweight). In addition, the number of hours of television viewing per week was also recorded. These data are listed here. Television $42 , 34 , 25 , 35 , 37 , 38 , 31 , 33 , 19 , 29 , 38 , 28 , 29 , 36 , 18$ Overweight $18 , 6 , 0 , - 1 , 13 , 14 , 7 , 7 , - 9 , 8 , 8 , 5 , 3 , 14 , - 7$ a. Draw the scatter diagram. b. (i) Calculate the sample regression line, and (ii) describe what the coefficients tell you about the relationship between the two variables.

Dec 3, 2017

The regression line is $y = 0.9674 x - 24.709 \left(r = 0.8762\right)$.

#### Explanation:

Let $x$ the numbers of hours of television vierwing per week and $y$ the overweight.

a. I put these data into Microsoft Excel and got the result.
b. (i) To find the sample regression line, you need the formula
$y - \overline{y} = {\sigma}_{x y} / \left({\sigma}_{x}^{2}\right) \left(x - \overline{x}\right)$, where

$\overline{x}$, $\overline{y}$: average of $x$ and $y$, respectively.
${\sigma}_{x}^{2}$: variance of $x$
${\sigma}_{x y}$: covarience of $x$ and $y$

The results obtained by using Excel are:
$\overline{x} = 31.47$
$\overline{y} = 5.733$
${\sigma}_{x}^{2} = 44.78$
${\sigma}_{y}^{2} = 54.60$
${\sigma}_{x y} = 43.32$

Use AVERAGE, VARP and COVAR function to calculate average, variance and covariance, respectively.

The regression line is:
$y - 5.733 = \frac{43.32}{44.78} \left(x - 31.47\right)$
$y = 0.9674 x - 24.709$.

(ii) The correlation coefficient is
$R = {\sigma}_{x y} / \left({\sigma}_{x} {\sigma}_{y}\right)$
$= \frac{43.32}{\sqrt{44.78 \cdot 54.60}}$
$= 0.8762$.

This implies those two variables have strong positive relationship. That is, the longer a child watches TV, the more he or she tends to be overweight. I found a great explanation about linear regression using Microsoft Excel.
https://socratic.org/questions/how-can-you-explain-linear-regression-analysis-using-excel?source=search

[Note]
Since the given data is sample, I should have used VAR.S and COVARIANCE.S functions instead of VAR.P and COVAR.

However, the slope of the regression line is the same whichever functions we choose. So I used the simpler function.