# How would you classify the following compounds as saturated, unsaturated, or substituted hydrocarbons: hexane (C_6H_14), isopropyl alcohol (C_3H_7OH), 2-chlorobutane (C_4H_9Cl), pentene (C_5H_10), and butyric acid (C_3H_7COOH)?

Jan 25, 2017

Saturated organic molecules have formula of ${C}_{n} {H}_{2 n + 2}$ OR the equivalent.

#### Explanation:

A saturated organic molecule can be substituted with halide or oxygen to give (saturated formula of) ${C}_{n} {H}_{2 n + 1} X$.

And thus $\text{hexane}$ is saturated.

$\text{Isopropyl alcohol}$ is saturated.

$\text{2-chlorobutane}$ is saturated. Because a halide counts as one hydrogen atom.

${C}_{5} {H}_{10}$ is $\text{UNSATURATED}$ and has 1 degree of unsaturation; as does $\text{butyric acid, } {C}_{4} {H}_{8} {O}_{2}$.

Jan 25, 2017

Saturated open chain hydrocarbons are classified as ALKANE. The general molecular formula of alkane is ${C}_{n} {H}_{2 n + 2}$. A saturated compound does not contain any $C = C \mathmr{and} C \equiv C$ in its structure. An unsaturated compound must posses atleast one $C = C \mathmr{and} C \equiv C$. The general molecular formula of open chain hydrocarbon with one $C = C$ is given by ${C}_{n} {H}_{2 n}$

When a compound is produced replacing one H-atom of alkane molecule by a univalent group or atom G, then the molecular formula of the compound formed becomes ${C}_{n} {H}_{2 n + 1} \text{-} G$.This compound also belongs to saturated class. This type of compound is classified as substituted hydrocarbons.

So hexane having molecular formula ${C}_{4} {H}_{14} = {C}_{4} {H}_{2 \cdot 4 + 2}$ follows the general formula of alkane ${C}_{n} {H}_{2 n + 2}$ for $n = 4$.

Isopropyl alcohol having MF

${C}_{3} {H}_{7} O H = {C}_{3} {H}_{2 \cdot 3 + 1} \text{-} O H$,

2-chlorobutane having MF

${C}_{4} {H}_{9} C l = {C}_{4} {H}_{2 \cdot 4 + 1} \text{-} C l$,

and butyric acid having MF

${C}_{3} {H}_{7} C O O H = {C}_{3} {H}_{2 \cdot 3 + 1} \text{-} C O O H$

belong to substituted hydrocarbon class as they follow general molecular formula ${C}_{n} {H}_{2 n + 1} \text{-} G$ .

And finally the open chain hydrocarbon pentene $\left({C}_{5} {H}_{10}\right)$ is classified as unsatrated hydrocarbon as its molecular formula follows general mf ${C}_{n} {H}_{2 n}$ of alkene with one $C = C$ for $n = 2$.