Is there an adjective form of "career"? Kind of like how the adjective form of "money" is "financial." I know that this is kind of a weird sounding question.
An adjective modifies a noun. While usually a noun, 'career could modify other nouns, becoming an adjective.
For example, A person who's career is crime would be called a "career criminal". Money itself can be used in the same way. You don't change the word to make a different form of speech, although they may be related. Money is a noun, but when you describe your pouches as "money bags", money is really an adjective to bags. It is not necessarily a separate noun.