What are penguins' physical adaptations?
Adaptations for survival in cold climates:
Penguins have a very thick layer of fat to keep them warm. The fat also acts as buoyancy for when they are in water. They also have feet specialized for swiming, as well as their wings that have devolved from flight to swimming.
The fat is key, since it also acts as a long-term energy storage for when males stand in groups for several months to wait for eggs to hatch.
The emperor penguin females lay eggs on the feet of their males. The males then stand for months without eating packed in a group. They have also created a joint survival technique which includes that they take turns standing at the border of the packed group.