What are the important components of a quasar's structure?
Well, first of all a black hole.
Quasars. Singularities. Blazers. Quasi-Stellar-Objects. All of those are names for black holes. Quasars are just very, very far from us (and that means very, very old). They are active black holes, which means that they are currently being fed matter. They are extremely, extremely bright, and they are very massive. Quasars show a very noticeable red shift in their spectra, which means they are moving away from us very quickly.
I guess that the major parts would probably be the same as any active galactic nucleus. The major component would be the supermassive black hole, surrounded by a accretion disk, and emitting radio & visible light waves at times as much as ten Milky Waves. Finally, all quasars observed have been at the center of galaxies being the active center.