What depends upon the amount of sample present whereas temperature does not?
The kinetic energy of the substance (or the internal energy).
Temperature is the average kinetic energy of atom or molecules of a substance, so for example if we have 2 pieces of wood at the same temperature, the average kinetic energy of molecules of wood is same in both.
But the internal energy of the bigger piece of wood will be higher, since more molecules have this energy.
The same way that burning a larger piece of wood will give more energy although they have the same temperature, because the internal energy of the bigger piece is more than that of the smaller piece.