What did Mendel discover about genetic factors in pea plants?
Mendel found that genes, are conservative, discrete, dominate,recessive, and influence the phenotype of the organisms.
Mendelian genetics state that normal genetic transfer never creates new forms of genes, only unique combinations of existing information. This means that genetic factors that are passed down are conservative maintaining existing forms.
Mendel found that some genes are recessive and are only expressed in a pure breeding organism that has two copies of the recessive gene. Other genes are dominate and are expressed in the phenotype if there is only one copy out of two of the dominate gene. Mendel found that the genes are discrete. The transfer of one gene does not affect the transfer of a second gene. The transfer of genetic information could be studied mathematically.
When Mendelian genetics became well known the knowledge called into serious question Darwin's theories of descent with modification that life starting with a "simple" single cell. Darwinian evolution requires a non conservative transfer of genetic information that requires new information.
The modern synthesis or Neo Darwinian Evolution answered the dilemma posed by Mendelian genetics by postulating that mutations could create the new and novel information. Up to the present there is no empirical evidence to support the idea that random accidental changes in the DNA can create new and novel information.