What do the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system control?
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) controls smooth muscles and glands. The somatic nervous system (SNS) controls all voluntary muscle movements.
The somatic nervous system (SoNS) controls all voluntary muscle movements and reflex arcs. The SoNS is composed of sensory and motor nerves. These nerves send and receive signals from the central nervous system (CNS).
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) controls smooth muscles and glands, meaning it mainly involves unconscious bodily functions. It controls your heart rate, your breathing, your metabolism and so forth. It is responsible for making you sneeze and the urge to vomit. The ANS is regulated by the hypothalamus.
The ANS can be further divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. The former is a quickly responding system or your "fight or flight" system whereas the latter largely contrasts this quick response and is a more slowly responding system responsible for functions when the body is typically at rest.