What factors affect solubility in a solid-liquid combination?
Strong attractive forces between the solvent and solute particles lead to greater solubility.
Thus, polar solutes dissolve best in polar solvents. Nonpolar solutes dissolve best in nonpolar solvents. A polar solute is insoluble in a nonpolar solvent and vice versa.
The general rule to remember is Like Dissolves Like.
When we add heat to a substance, the kinetic energy of the molecules increases. The more energetic solvent molecules can overcome the attractive forces among solute particles. The solute particles leave the surface of the solid and move into the liquid phase (dissolve).
Thus, increasing the temperature usually increases the solubilities of substances. For example, sugar is more soluble in water at higher temperatures.
Increasing the surface area of the solute will increase the rate of dissolving. For example, if you place a whole sugar cube in water it will take a really long time for it to dissolve. However, if you break up the sugar cube in to smaller pieces thus increasing its surface area it will dissolve faster.
Increase the temperature of the solvent. In the above example, if you heat the water up the sugar will dissolve in it faster.
Stirring will also speed up the rate of dissolving a solid solute in a liquid solvent.
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