What is an ion and how is it different from an atom?

Feb 16, 2017

$\text{An ion is a species...........}$

Explanation:

$\text{An ion is a species with an excess or deficiency of electrons.}$

A given atom, say $\text{chlorine}$ or $\text{sodium}$ has a given number of protons, fundamental positively charged NUCLEAR particles, which is given by $Z$, the atomic number. For $C l$, $Z = 17$; for $N a$, $Z = 11$. Chlorine atoms tend to gain electrons to form negatively charged ions with 18 electrons (the difference between protons and electrons determines the charge, how?); sodium tends to lose an electron to form $N {a}^{+}$. Because the nuclear charge remains the same in each case, the element is still sodium or chlorine, but now we have $N {a}^{+}$, and $C {l}^{-}$ ions.

But because there is now a mismatch between NUCLEAR charge and ELECTRONIC charge, an ion results.............. Most elements form ions of different sorts, which may be predicted on a Periodic basis.

Feb 16, 2017