What is genetically similar and different about these structures that have been separated to opposite poles of the cell during anaphase I?
It is about homologous chromosomes and meiosis. For answer, continue reading. Also read the contents provided in links.
First thing first: structures separating and moving to opposite poles during Anaphase I are homologous chromosomes. Please read the following to know more about anaphase:
Homologous chromosomes are present in paired condition in diploid eukaryotic cells (except in gametes, where chromosomes are in haploid condition). They are genetically similar in possessing same linear sequence of genes arranged on them.
The two members of a homologous pair come from two parents: hence may carry two different forms of same gene. please read a bit about homologous chromosomes before you move ahead:
Homologous chromosomes could be different in carrying different forms of the same gene i.e. members of a homologous pair may carry different alleles on them.
Before cell division, DNA of the chromosome will replicate to form chromatids.