What is separating a solid from a liquid by evaporating the liquid called?
You gotta be more specific with your question but I feel that is it Evaporation to dryness.
Solid which is insoluble in liquid:
Solid which is soluble in liquid:
4) Evaporation to dryness
1) Filtration - separate insoluble solids from liquid.
The filter paper allows the liquid to flow through but it traps the larger pieces of insoluble solids as a residue. The substances that pass through the filter paper are called the filtrate.
Example: water and sand
2) Centrifugation - separate insoluble solids from liquid.
If the solid is very fine, this process can be sped up with a machine called a centrifuge. Centrifuges spin a test tube very fast, and the solid moves quickly to the bottom of the test tube due to gravity and centrifugal force.
Example: solid components in blood or urine
3) Crystallisation - separate soluble solids from liquid.
Crystallisation is a chemical solid–liquid separation technique, in which mass transfer of a solute from the liquid solution to a pure solid crystalline phase occurs.
Example: water and sugar
4) Evaporation to dryness - separate soluble solids from liquid
When a solution is heated, the solvent evaporates, leaving behind the dissolved solids as residue. When a solution containing dissolved solutes is heated, the solvent will evaporate. Only the solute will remain in the evaporating dish.
Example: water and salt
P.S. Evaporation to dryness cannot be use for solutions like sugar solution because the sugar will decompose upon heating.