What is the difference between Arrhenius, bronsted-lowry and Lewis acids and bases?
In the order which you list them, each definition includes and expands on the previous definitions, treating all cases the previous definition could, and broadening out to include more.
In Arrhenius, we are limited to cases in which water is the solvent (this is assumed by Arrhenius). An acid will dissolve in water to produce
Bronsted and Lowry state that an acid is any substance that will donate a proton (meaning an
(Bronsted and Lowry also change our thinking of what makes a substance a base. All that is required is that a particle (atom, molecule or ion) be able to acquire a proton, and that particle is a base. Check out the role of
The Lewis definition goes this one further in stating that an acid is a substance that can receive an electron pair (meaning the lone pair of a particle) and that a base is a substance that can donate a lone pair.
Again, this definition includes all cases that fit into the B-L scheme, because the
However, Lewis also includes cases in which the
would not be an acid-base reaction according to Bronsted-Lowry, but does qualify in the Lewis sense.