What is translation?
Translation occurs when ribosomes use information from RNA to build proteins.
Translation is the second phase of protein synthesis. It follows transcription, in which the information in DNA is "rewritten" into mRNA. During translation, the mRNA attaches to a ribosome. Transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules then "read" the mRNA code and translate the message into a sequence of amino acids. Every three nucleotides in the mRNA make up one codon, which corresponds to one amino acid in the resulting protein. The ribosome tracks along the mRNA until it reaches a stop codon, signaling the assembly of mRNA and ribosome to break apart.
Below is a stop-motion Vine video that summarizes the steps of translation.
The video below provides a summary of how the processes of transcription and translation occur using the Shockwave tutorial DNA Workshop from PBS.