What strategic disadvantage did the Central Powers have in World War I?
The Central Powers had the disadvantage at the beginning of the war of having to fight on two fronts. Also there was the control of the oceans that Entente Powers of France, England and Italy enjoyed.
Germany at the beginning had to fight on two fronts against the Russians in the East and the combined forces of France and England on the western front.
Austria/ Hungry also had to fight on two fronts. Austria was also fighting Russia on the east and Italy on the west.
The Ottomans were fighting Russia on their east and northern front.
and England in the west. ( The invasion of Russia by the English and Australians was a disaster but it did tie down many of the Ottoman Empires forces.
The battle of Jutland was a draw but strategically it left England in control of the oceans. Germany was unable to reinforce its colonies in Africa. Despite the submarine warfare Germany was unable to stop military supplies coming from America and English colonies to aid Great Britain, and France.