What theories surround the history of how life arose on earth?
The theory of material realism is one of the ideas which surround the "history" of of how life arose on earth. Intelligent design is another theory
First there is really no "history of the origin of life on the earth.
There is no conclusive evidence that provides any factual history of the origin of life.
There are many theories about the origin of life that are based on the theory of material realism, or the idea that everything must happen by natural cause.
The chemical evolution (https://socratic.org/questions/what-is-the-scientific-theory-on-the-origin-of-life) theory was proposed by Oparin and Haldane. It was reinforced by the experiments of Miller and Urey which produced amino acids by "lightning" in a flask containing mixture of some gases. This experiment has been debunked by many according to whom it used faulty assumptions about the primitive atmosphere and it was not truly random because the desired molecules were removed from the flask before they could be destroyed.
Another theory is that life started in crystals of clay. The problem is that there is no known mechanism for the DNA, RNA that could have been accidentally formed in these non living crystals, to be translated into amino acids and proteins inside cells.
The most popular modern theory is that life started in volcanic vents deep in the ocean. The archabacteria that live in the vents do not need oxygen or hydrocarbons as the majority of living cells do. They use the sulfur molecules that come from the volcanos for energy.
None of the these theories actually seem to work in real life so many scientists think life on earth must have come from outer space. The likelihood of a living cell occurring by natural cause on the earth is so remote that this is why many scientists think that live must have hitched a ride on a comet or astroid to start life on earth.