Who were the first people known to produce food through agriculture?
Agriculture started independently, in different locations of the world. At least eleven centres of origin are recognised. People of each centre domesticated only certain species of plants and animals.
Ancient people of China, Peru, Mesopotamia, Indus valley and Nile valley became engaged in farming at least 10,000 years ago. Pigs were domesticated in Mesopotamia 13,000 years ago followed by domestication of sheep and cattle in nearby areas. This is why, fertile crescent of near east is regarded as the birthplace of agriculture, and it is here, man first cultivated wheat.
That does not mean that contributions from other centres are of less importance. Maize, papaya and potato were domesticated in the New World; edible mango, orange, tamarind and spices originated in south east Asia; while litchi and onions were first cultivated in China.