# Why are sigma bonds stronger?

The covalent bond is an electrostatic attraction between the positively-charged nuclei of the bonded atoms and the negatively-charged binding pair of electrons in their $\sigma -$orbital. Electrostatic attractions are short-range forces and their strength depends on the distance between the opposite charges.
By comparison, a $\pi -$ orbital formed by the sideways overlap of two p-orbitals locates the electrons rather further away from the bonded nuclei so their electrostatic attraction for the nuclei is a little weaker. The is why the average bond enthalpy for a C=C bond is not quite twice the bond enthalpy of a C-C bond.