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Human sexuality turns out to be quite complex and has a strong biological component to it, as well as cultural.


Much has been learned about human sexuality over the past 50 years. Four components are often identified in determining your sexuality: 1) whether you have male or female genitals; 2) who you are attracted to sexually (i.e. males or females); 3) how you "feel" internally (i.e whether you feel like a male or female), and 4) your outward expression of your sexuality (e.g. how you dress, behave, etc). The last 3 at least can have some culturally derived components too.

In most people, if they are female, for example, they have female genitals, are attracted to males, feel and think female in their brains, and outwardly will dress and behave as females in however their culture defines female dress.

But we now know that there are various combinations of these four that manifest in various kinds of gay and transgender people. For example, a transgender male with male genitals might internally feel like a female, be attracted to males sexually, and outwardly want to dress like a woman or perhaps even a man.

So, the way we think and our sexual drive is partially determined by our biology, but also seems to have a cultural component to it as well.


In Maslow's hierarchy of human needs, self-actualization was supposed to be the pinnacle of human needs. Current research does not support this hierarchal approach, nor that self-actualization is at the top.


Maslow developed his theory of human needs in the mid-twentyth century as a hierarchal pyramid - 1st and most important stuff at the bottom, working your way up to self-actualization at the top. The model was used extensively, especially in educational learning settings.

However, model social psychology recognizes that some of the elements in his hierarchy are important (like food, shelter, etc.). However, it is no longer thought that that a hierarchal pyramidal type structure is valid. Its now thought to be more of an interconnected network of factors that should be present to satisfy needs. See pic.

The idea of "self actualization" is also not considered to be a "core" need any more, but has been replaced by other factors.

http://www.forbes.com/sites/stevedenning/2012/03/29/what-maslow-missed/#5b1b4f74455a image source here


Perceptual set is a tendency to perceive or notice some aspects of the available sensory data and ignore others.


Our bodies are magnificent machines. One of the ways they demonstrate this is by taking repetitive motions and actions and reducing the resources needed to perform them. For instance, when a baby is learning to walk, each step is planned and performed. But after a relatively short period of time, they are running without giving it a thought - they just run (and run and run and run...)

Our brains do the same thing. The world is full of information that continually enters our senses. In order to speed up processing time and reduce the energy needed to perform those functions, it operates largely on what is expected and not necessarily on what is actually there.

And that is what Perception Set Theory gets into - how the brain "perceives" - or as the below link describes it - "Perceptual set theory stresses the idea of perception as an active process involving selection, inference and interpretation."

Perceptual set is a tendency to perceive or notice some aspects of the available sensory data and ignore others. For instance, have you ever seen this:

Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a toatl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe.

The brain doesn't read every word but instead selects out important bits and teases out the rest based on expectation and inference.

Another kind of perceptual set is when we have a fear of snakes, to automatically assume that every suspicious looking thing in the grass is a snake - even though most times we're looking at a garden hose.

There are a number of ways perception sets can change. If we're hungry, the perception set will tend to look for food over other things.

The link has a great article about perception sets.



Memory loss and short term memory loss.


Amnesia is a defect of memory in which a person is unable to create or recall memories as general people can do.

There are two types of it like you've asked:

#1.#Anterograde Amnesia: In this type of amnesia, a person is unable to make new memories. He knows everything up until the injury but can't make new memories.

#2.#Retrograde Amnesia: In this type of amnesia, a person forget a part of his life or whole whole memory. In this type, the person can make new memories.

In some cases, both of these type of amnesia can occur simultaneously.

I suggest you to see these movies or TV shows to understand more about amnesia:

  1. Memento (Anterograde Amnesia)
  2. Samantha Who? (Retrograde Amnesia)
  3. Who Am I? (Retrograde Amnesia)


Patriarchy is regarded, by many feminist academics, as the dwelling-place and safeguard of modern sexism.


The concept of patriarchy far exceeds a short form answer. However it can be summed up simply in the idea of a masculinity-based hegemonic and overarching structure in society which prevades and instructs most, if not all, social interactions.

If patriarchy is assumed to exist, it yields a way of explaining sexism in modern society. That is, despite the generally agreed-upon stance that the sexes are equal, people continue to act in ways that indicate an assumed superiority of masculinity or at least an assumption of greater competence in men.

As an example: it is readily observed that women in similar positions to men in a workforce will often receive lower wages. This is explained in two ways: women ask for raises less often, and women are regarded as generally less worthy of raises.

This idea relates to the idea of patriarchy because as viewed by academia, patriarchy, that is to say the distinction between what it means to act like a man and a woman, is the underlying structure that informs the ideals of how a woman "should act" and thus teaches women to be less demanding in their careers. Further, patriarchy again defines the default successful employee as male. This predisposes managers to regarding female employees as less effective and thus less worthy of wage increases.


An action potential is generated in the following steps: depolarization, repolarization, hyperpolarization and a refactory period.


Assuming you are referring to depolarization (as to how it's caused!):
Receptor cells (cells which detect change) act as transducers (which means, they can convert, for eg. light into energy in an electrical impulse!). These initiate action potentials.

When there no arrival of an impulse/action potential, the neuron is at it's resting potential . They have a high amount of potassium ions in the axon and a high amount of sodium ions outside ( potential difference ). However, the amount of sodium ions outside are much greater than the potassium ions inside - thus results in an electrochemical gradient. This is maintained by sodium-potassium pumps.

www.s-cool.co.uk (the first part of the axon is at it's resting potential)

  • Depolarization: when an electric current stimulates the axon, voltage-gated channels open in the membrane to allow sodium ions to pass through. It diffuses down the electrochemical gradient. This causes the potential different to become less negative inside the axon (as there is an inflow of sodium ions!). Resulting in depolarization. (the second part in the diagram!)

( I'll include explanations of the other steps as well, just incase.. )

  • Repolarization: due to depolarization, the axon becomes positive (because of the inflow of postassium ions). Thus, voltage-gated channels for sodium close and potassium ion channels open, so that potassium diffuses out. This is to restore the initial potential difference.

  • Hyperpolarization: during repolarization, potassium ions tend to diffuse out toooo much. Causing, hyperpolarization briefly.

  • Finally, the refractory period: at this stage, the axon is not responsive. It is recovering from the action potential to restore its resting potential. (aka back to the resting potential where the axon has a high amount of potassium and outside, there's a high amount of sodium!)

Check out this youtube video for more about action potentials!:

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