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Adrenal glands produce hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, steroids, cortisol, and cortisone, and chemicals such as adrenalin (epinephrine), norepinephrine, and dopamine.


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The adrenal glands are two glands that sit on top of your kidneys that are made up of two distinct parts.

Adrenal Cortex
—> outer part of the gland
—> Performs vital functions and hormones are necessary for life.
—> produces hormones that are vital to life, such as cortisol (which helps regulate metabolism and helps your body respond to stress) and aldosterone (which helps control blood pressure).

Adrenal Medulla
—> the inner part of the gland
—> contributes to the fight-or-flight response
—> produces nonessential (that is, you don’t need them to live) hormones:
1. Adrenaline or Epinephrine helps your body react to stress.
2. Norepinephrine. Also known as noradrenaline, this hormone works with epinephrine in responding to stress. However, it can cause vasoconstriction (the narrowing of blood vessels). This results in high blood pressure.


It is protected by bones, meninges, and cerebral spinal fluid.


The brain, a part of the Central Nervous System, is protected by the skull.

The spinal cord is surrounded by bones called your vertebrae, or backbone. Between these bones is a type of multilayered tissue, called meninges, which further protect your spinal cord. Inside the channel formed by the meninges is the cerebral spinal fluid. This prevents displacing blows from causing the CNS to hit against the bones that protect it.

Cerebral spinal fluid is in the brain as well as the vertebrae, and the fact that the brain floats in this liquid prevents excessive injuries from brain trauma.


Memory loss and short term memory loss.


Amnesia is a defect of memory in which a person is unable to create or recall memories as general people can do.

There are two types of it like you've asked:

#1.#Anterograde Amnesia: In this type of amnesia, a person is unable to make new memories. He knows everything up until the injury but can't make new memories.

#2.#Retrograde Amnesia: In this type of amnesia, a person forget a part of his life or whole whole memory. In this type, the person can make new memories.

In some cases, both of these type of amnesia can occur simultaneously.

I suggest you to see these movies or TV shows to understand more about amnesia:

  1. Memento (Anterograde Amnesia)
  2. Samantha Who? (Retrograde Amnesia)
  3. Who Am I? (Retrograde Amnesia)


Read below:


He calls in a group for an experiment, but in reality there's only one subject in the group - everyone else knows what is going on, and is part of it.

The group is shown two images:


The group is asked which line, A B C, is the same length as the line on the left. They are seated in a circle so they answer one by one, and the subject always answers last.

The answer appears to be C, right? There were multiple trials where everyone would give the same answers, then some would answer wrong, then some would answer right.

The goal is to see if the subject will "conform" to the group and answer what everyone else has answered or if the subject won't conform and answer what he/she thinks is the correct answer.


No, self-actualization is not a basic need.


This explanation is based off of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. In Maslow's hierarchy of needs, self-actualization is actually the pinnacle, and not everyone will reach it.

This is the pyramid:


As labeled by the picture, basic needs include the physiological needs and the safety needs, such as food, water, shelter, security...etc.

What Maslow said was that before you could move on to the next level, you had to fulfill the lower level first. Before you care about your security and your safety, you need to have a source of food, water, and shelter.

If you fulfill all the other needs, you reach self-actualization, where you successfully achieve your potential.

So no, you don't need self-actualization as a basic need, but you do need to have your basic needs fulfilled before you can reach self-actualization.


Voltage-gated calcium ion channels


The major one is voltage-gated calcium ion channels, as the influx of calcium is what subsequently triggers vesicles containing neurotransmitter to move and fuse to the presynaptic membrane and be expelled into the synapse via exocytosis.

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