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Adrenal glands produce hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, steroids, cortisol, and cortisone, and chemicals such as adrenalin (epinephrine), norepinephrine, and dopamine.


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The adrenal glands are two glands that sit on top of your kidneys that are made up of two distinct parts.

Adrenal Cortex
—> outer part of the gland
—> Performs vital functions and hormones are necessary for life.
—> produces hormones that are vital to life, such as cortisol (which helps regulate metabolism and helps your body respond to stress) and aldosterone (which helps control blood pressure).

Adrenal Medulla
—> the inner part of the gland
—> contributes to the fight-or-flight response
—> produces nonessential (that is, you don’t need them to live) hormones:
1. Adrenaline or Epinephrine helps your body react to stress.
2. Norepinephrine. Also known as noradrenaline, this hormone works with epinephrine in responding to stress. However, it can cause vasoconstriction (the narrowing of blood vessels). This results in high blood pressure.


Yes and no. It depends on the situation.


Psychosis is a severe mental disorder in which thought and emotions are so impaired that contact is lost with external reality. There are many known causes of it. Psychosis can be induced either socially (environmental factors), abuse of drugs, and genetically. You can refer here for an explanation of its causes.

So generally, there is no cure and it is permanent. But in some cases where psychosis develops from outside conditions (socially caused), and those situations can be addressed, the victim (together with a professional psychiatrist) can then control their unusual behaviour along with some medications (which can inhibit some of the symptoms).

Hope this helps! :-)


Marijuana is a fascinating drug, because it's effects varies from one person to another, it has effects that falls under 3 drug categories(Depressant, Narcotics, Hallucinogen)


As a Depressant, it can put a person in a parasympathetic nervous system state or a resting state, characterized by shallow breathing, dilated pupils, increased appetite and slower reaction time, behaviors usually observed upon people, who are resting or relaxed. This improves appetite in people with HIV/AIDS.

As a Narcotic, it can inhibit or prevents the feeling of pain, it can treat chronic pain and muscle spasms in people, who had experience major accidents or Epilepsy.

As a Hallucinogen, it can produce illusions/mental images. People report using hallucinogenic drugs for more social or recreational purposes, including to have fun, help them deal with stress, or enable them to enter into what they perceive as a more enlightened sense of thinking or being. Hallucinogens have also been investigated as therapeutic agents to treat diseases associated with perceptual distortions, such as schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, bipolar disorder, and dementia.

Marijuana, has different varieties, each variety has different major effects, upon the body. And how the body respond to Marijuana differ from one person to another. That's why we have different classifications for Pot-smokers.


In Maslow's hierarchy of human needs, self-actualization was supposed to be the pinnacle of human needs. Current research does not support this hierarchal approach, nor that self-actualization is at the top.


Maslow developed his theory of human needs in the mid-twentyth century as a hierarchal pyramid - 1st and most important stuff at the bottom, working your way up to self-actualization at the top. The model was used extensively, especially in educational learning settings.

However, model social psychology recognizes that some of the elements in his hierarchy are important (like food, shelter, etc.). However, it is no longer thought that that a hierarchal pyramidal type structure is valid. Its now thought to be more of an interconnected network of factors that should be present to satisfy needs. See pic.

The idea of "self actualization" is also not considered to be a "core" need any more, but has been replaced by other factors.

http://www.forbes.com/sites/stevedenning/2012/03/29/what-maslow-missed/#5b1b4f74455a image source here


Perceptual set is a tendency to perceive or notice some aspects of the available sensory data and ignore others.


Our bodies are magnificent machines. One of the ways they demonstrate this is by taking repetitive motions and actions and reducing the resources needed to perform them. For instance, when a baby is learning to walk, each step is planned and performed. But after a relatively short period of time, they are running without giving it a thought - they just run (and run and run and run...)

Our brains do the same thing. The world is full of information that continually enters our senses. In order to speed up processing time and reduce the energy needed to perform those functions, it operates largely on what is expected and not necessarily on what is actually there.

And that is what Perception Set Theory gets into - how the brain "perceives" - or as the below link describes it - "Perceptual set theory stresses the idea of perception as an active process involving selection, inference and interpretation."

Perceptual set is a tendency to perceive or notice some aspects of the available sensory data and ignore others. For instance, have you ever seen this:

Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a toatl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe.

The brain doesn't read every word but instead selects out important bits and teases out the rest based on expectation and inference.

Another kind of perceptual set is when we have a fear of snakes, to automatically assume that every suspicious looking thing in the grass is a snake - even though most times we're looking at a garden hose.

There are a number of ways perception sets can change. If we're hungry, the perception set will tend to look for food over other things.

The link has a great article about perception sets.



Patriarchy is regarded, by many feminist academics, as the dwelling-place and safeguard of modern sexism.


The concept of patriarchy far exceeds a short form answer. However it can be summed up simply in the idea of a masculinity-based hegemonic and overarching structure in society which prevades and instructs most, if not all, social interactions.

If patriarchy is assumed to exist, it yields a way of explaining sexism in modern society. That is, despite the generally agreed-upon stance that the sexes are equal, people continue to act in ways that indicate an assumed superiority of masculinity or at least an assumption of greater competence in men.

As an example: it is readily observed that women in similar positions to men in a workforce will often receive lower wages. This is explained in two ways: women ask for raises less often, and women are regarded as generally less worthy of raises.

This idea relates to the idea of patriarchy because as viewed by academia, patriarchy, that is to say the distinction between what it means to act like a man and a woman, is the underlying structure that informs the ideals of how a woman "should act" and thus teaches women to be less demanding in their careers. Further, patriarchy again defines the default successful employee as male. This predisposes managers to regarding female employees as less effective and thus less worthy of wage increases.

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