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In a positive correlation, variables move in the same direction. In a negative correlation, they move in opposite directions.


There may be a positive correlation between test scores and time spent studying. The two variables, test scores and time spent studying, increase and decrease with each other. The more time you spend studying, the higher your test score, and vice versa.

There may be a negative correlation between time spent studying and time spent socializing. As you spend more time studying, you spend less time socializing, and vice versa. The two variables are inverse to each other.


In Maslow's hierarchy of human needs, self-actualization was supposed to be the pinnacle of human needs. Current research does not support this hierarchal approach, nor that self-actualization is at the top.


Maslow developed his theory of human needs in the mid-twentyth century as a hierarchal pyramid - 1st and most important stuff at the bottom, working your way up to self-actualization at the top. The model was used extensively, especially in educational learning settings.

However, model social psychology recognizes that some of the elements in his hierarchy are important (like food, shelter, etc.). However, it is no longer thought that that a hierarchal pyramidal type structure is valid. Its now thought to be more of an interconnected network of factors that should be present to satisfy needs. See pic.

The idea of "self actualization" is also not considered to be a "core" need any more, but has been replaced by other factors.

http://www.forbes.com/sites/stevedenning/2012/03/29/what-maslow-missed/#5b1b4f74455a image source here


When the figure of attachment isn't there, the person attached starts feeling distressed.


The attachment theory was first introduced by John Bowlby in 1958. The theory describes interpersonal relationships between humans, but mainly focuses on infants' needs to be physically close to at least one primary caregiver.

Bowlby presented the main concepts of the theory, which were:

  1. Infants seek proximity to attachment figures (usually the parents) because these would protect them if they were to face any dangers.

  2. Proximity-seeking behaviours developed over the course of evolution because as mentioned previously, being close to one's parents provides security for the infant.

  3. This attachment system is the most important during the early years of one's life, however, attachment is also vital later in life, especially during the adolescent years. A lack of attachment can often lead to the development of a range of neurological disorders.

Bowlby also described what it takes for a person to become attached to another person.

  1. The figure of attachment is there in times of need.
  2. The figure of attachment provides a physical and emotional "safe haven". This means that the person attached feels secure and comfortable when in the presence of their partner.
  3. The figure of attachment provides a safe environment for a person to learn, explore, to develop their personality and to accomplish their goals.

When the above points are met, the partner then becomes a source of attachment.

The consequence of meeting the points listed above is that when one becomes attached to another person, he or she inevitably becomes dependent on them, too. This means that in times of separation from the figure of attachment, he or she tends to feel distressed.

Attachment figures tend to promote positive views about self and the world. However, when the figure of attachment is unavailable or begins to fail to meet one's expectations, the person attached might form negative representations of self and others. (low self-esteem and a pessimistic view of the world)


They come from tyrosine and tryptophan, respectively.


Both are formed by enzymatically controlled hydroxylation and decarboxylation reactions.


Dopamine is formed by the metabolism of tyrosine.

#"Tyrosine" → "L-DOPA" → "Dopamine"#

The enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase first hydroxylates tyrosine to L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA).


In a second step, the enzyme L-DOPA decarboxylase decarboxylates L-DOPA to form dopamine.


Serotonin is formed by the metabolism of tryptophan.

#"Tryptophan" → "5-hydroxytryptophan" → "serotonin"#

In the first step, the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase hydroxylates tryptophan to form 5-hydroxy tryptophan (5-HTP).


In a second step, the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase decarboxylates 5-HTP to form serotonin.


I'm presuming your question is related to sensation.


Absolute Threshold is the point where some sensory input becomes just noticeable to our senses. It is the softest sound we can hear or the slightest touch we can feel. Anything less than this goes unnoticed.

Once a stimulus becomes detectable, how much must it change by for the change to become noticeable by us? The Difference Threshold is the amount of change needed for us to recognize that a change has occurred. This change is referred to as the Just Noticeable Difference .

This difference however is not absolute. Imagine you have an empty hand, and someone puts a 1 g weight in it. You would notice this weight.
Now imagine that you have a 1 kg weight, and someone adds a 1g weight to that. You would not notice this at all.
This is referred to as Weber’s Law .

Ever wonder why it is that we notice certain smells or sounds right away and then after a while they fade into the background? Once we adapt to the smell of a perfume or the ticking of the clock, we stop recognizing it. This process of becoming less sensitive to unchanging stimulus is referred to as sensory adaptation, after all, if a stimulus doesn’t change, why do we need to constantly sense it?

Source: http://allpsych.com/psychology101/sensation/

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