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Long-enduring depression, especially if it is stress or trauma related and left untreated or does not respond to treatment, can have major effects on the entire body, both physically and emotionally.

Homeostasis (maintaining of a constant internal environment despite external changes) can be severely affected by depression.
Constant low moods and feelings of hopelessness and worthlessness can lead to disturbances in metabolism, weight issues, etc.

If the symptoms remain untreated and the situation does not improve, it can lead to additional disorders as well like PTED (post traumatic embitterment disorder), MDD (major depressive disorder), GAD (generalized anxiety disorder), CFS (chronic fatigue syndrome), metabolic syndrome (syndrome X), fibromyalgia, hypertension, etc.
These can in turn lead to physical effects like lethargy, lowered reaction times, breathlessness, sweating, heart beat irregularities, headaches, GIT problems (gastro-intestinal tract), weight issues, muscle and joint pains, etc.


Perceptual set is a tendency to perceive or notice some aspects of the available sensory data and ignore others.


Our bodies are magnificent machines. One of the ways they demonstrate this is by taking repetitive motions and actions and reducing the resources needed to perform them. For instance, when a baby is learning to walk, each step is planned and performed. But after a relatively short period of time, they are running without giving it a thought - they just run (and run and run and run...)

Our brains do the same thing. The world is full of information that continually enters our senses. In order to speed up processing time and reduce the energy needed to perform those functions, it operates largely on what is expected and not necessarily on what is actually there.

And that is what Perception Set Theory gets into - how the brain "perceives" - or as the below link describes it - "Perceptual set theory stresses the idea of perception as an active process involving selection, inference and interpretation."

Perceptual set is a tendency to perceive or notice some aspects of the available sensory data and ignore others. For instance, have you ever seen this:

Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a toatl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe.

The brain doesn't read every word but instead selects out important bits and teases out the rest based on expectation and inference.

Another kind of perceptual set is when we have a fear of snakes, to automatically assume that every suspicious looking thing in the grass is a snake - even though most times we're looking at a garden hose.

There are a number of ways perception sets can change. If we're hungry, the perception set will tend to look for food over other things.

The link has a great article about perception sets.



Patriarchy is regarded, by many feminist academics, as the dwelling-place and safeguard of modern sexism.


The concept of patriarchy far exceeds a short form answer. However it can be summed up simply in the idea of a masculinity-based hegemonic and overarching structure in society which prevades and instructs most, if not all, social interactions.

If patriarchy is assumed to exist, it yields a way of explaining sexism in modern society. That is, despite the generally agreed-upon stance that the sexes are equal, people continue to act in ways that indicate an assumed superiority of masculinity or at least an assumption of greater competence in men.

As an example: it is readily observed that women in similar positions to men in a workforce will often receive lower wages. This is explained in two ways: women ask for raises less often, and women are regarded as generally less worthy of raises.

This idea relates to the idea of patriarchy because as viewed by academia, patriarchy, that is to say the distinction between what it means to act like a man and a woman, is the underlying structure that informs the ideals of how a woman "should act" and thus teaches women to be less demanding in their careers. Further, patriarchy again defines the default successful employee as male. This predisposes managers to regarding female employees as less effective and thus less worthy of wage increases.


They come from tyrosine and tryptophan, respectively.


Both are formed by enzymatically controlled hydroxylation and decarboxylation reactions.


Dopamine is formed by the metabolism of tyrosine.

#"Tyrosine" → "L-DOPA" → "Dopamine"#

The enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase first hydroxylates tyrosine to L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA).


In a second step, the enzyme L-DOPA decarboxylase decarboxylates L-DOPA to form dopamine.


Serotonin is formed by the metabolism of tryptophan.

#"Tryptophan" → "5-hydroxytryptophan" → "serotonin"#

In the first step, the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase hydroxylates tryptophan to form 5-hydroxy tryptophan (5-HTP).


In a second step, the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase decarboxylates 5-HTP to form serotonin.


The difference in these two logical fallacies is that DF is looking to make an option false while FD is trying make an option true.


I've moved the question to Psychology from English Grammar because this is a psychology/logic question and not a literary device one.

Below is a link to a website that lists out 26 logical missteps, with examples:


Ok - now to the question! The difference between a disjunctive fallacy and a false dilemma.

Disjunctive fallacy results from thinking that within a choice between two things, finding one thing true makes the other thing false (even though they might both be true). For instance, I can say:

I bought the new car either because I like the colour or because I like the styling. I like the colour. Therefore I don't like the styling.

In logic format, it looks like this:

#X or Y#
#"therefore not " Y#

In logic, for the statement #X or Y# to be found as True, either X or Y needs to be found as True. They both can be True - and so this logical fallacy negates one option that shouldn't be negated.

False dilemma results from thinking that within an array of choices, two things are chosen (and one is usually extreme) to force the "logical acceptance" of the second choice. For instance, I could say:

The punishment for a thief should either be 10 years of hard labour or death. It shouldn't be death. Therefore it should be 10 years of hard labour.

In logic format, it looks like this:

#X or Y#
#"not " X#
#"therefore " Y#

In logic, for the statement #X or Y# to be found as True, either X or Y needs to be found as True. If however we throw in a false choice (#X#), the remaining choice is forced to be seen as True.

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