What are the intermolecular forces in water?
Water has hydrogen bonds, dipole-induced dipole forces, and London dispersion forces.
In order of decreasing strength, the types of intermolecular bonds in covalent substances are:
- Hydrogen bonds
- Dipole-dipole attractions
- Dipole-induced dipole attractions
- London dispersion forces
You start at the top and work down. If a substance has one type of intermolecular bond, it has all the other forces listed below it.
Water has polar O-H bonds. The negative O atoms attract the positive H atoms in nearby molecules, leading to the unusually strong type of dipole-dipole force called a hydrogen bond.
Since water has hydrogen bonds, it also has dipole-induced dipole and London dispersion forces. The hydrogen bonds are the strongest force, but the other types of intermolecular attraction are still present.