# Describe the formation of single, double, and triple bonds by orbital overlap?

##### 1 Answer

**Single bonds** are made when two orbitals overlap head-on (such as two **one**

Example:

- Let a
#"H"-"H"# bond to be made be along the#z# axis.

#"H"_2# uses one#1s# orbital from each hydrogen to make a#"H"-"H"# bond through a#1s-1s# head-on orbital overlap. A head-on overlap must occur to make the only component of a single bond.

A **double bond** incorporates an additional **one** **one**

Example:

- Let a
#"C"="C"# bond to be made be along the#z# axis.

The

#2p_z# orbital of each carbon overlaps head-on to make one#sigma# bond.Then, the

#2p_x# of each carbon overlaps sidelong to generate a#pi# bond. This gives us both components of the double bond.

A **triple bond** just incorporates one more **one** **two**

Example:

- Let a
#stackrel((-))( :"C")-=stackrel((+))("O": )# bond to be made be along the#z# axis.

As before, the

#2p_z# orbital of each atom overlaps head-on to generate a#sigma# bond. This is always necessary as a first step.Then, a

#2p_x# orbital from each atom overlaps as before to generate one#pi# bond.The

#2p_y# orbital is finally incorporated from each atom to generate the second#pi# bond. That gives us all three components of a triple bond.