The pole names are derived from the type of ion in solution that is formed there.
Cathode = "Cation" + "Electrode" Positive Ions
Anode = "Anion" + "Electrode" Negative Ions
The anode of an electrolytic cell is positive (cathode is negative), since the anode attracts anions from the solution. However, the anode of a galvanic cell is negatively charged, since the spontaneous oxidation at the anode is the source of the cell's electrons or negative charge. The cathode of a galvanic cell is its positive terminal. In both galvanic and electrolytic cells, oxidation takes place at the anode and electrons flow from the anode to the cathode.
The two types of cells are essentially inverses:
The redox reaction in a galvanic cell is a spontaneous reaction. For this reason, galvanic cells are commonly used as batteries. Galvanic cell reactions supply energy which is used to perform work. The energy is harnessed by situating the oxidation and reduction reactions in separate containers, joined by an apparatus that allows electrons to flow. A common galvanic cell is the Daniell cell.
The redox reaction in an electrolytic cell is nonspontaneous. Electrical energy is required to induce the electrolysis reaction.