What system of government is the "divine right of kings"?
"L'etat, c'est moi" said Louis the XIV of France. (The State, it is me.) He ruled France from 1643 to 1715.
This viewpoint is of ancient and persistent origins but was particularly of note at this time since that King felt he was beholden to no one and felt no one could legally challenge his authority.
The Monarch became the entire State government. All decisions of government were centralized on one person, the King. The King is ruled only by God. This view was personified by Louis XIV of France. His absolute authority and centralized government was the height of this national viewpoint. For a large nation like France this was high expectation of one person.
Obvious problems with this led to later downfall but the philosophy was appealing to some, it worked moderately well for some, and it lasted quite a while.