Do transitive active and transitive passive sentences both have a receiver of the action?
Yes. See examples below.
A transitive verb is a verb which takes an object (=the receiver of the action), so in the active voice sentence the object is the receiver.
A change to passive voice changes the receiver from the object to the subject of the sentence.
The boy fed the dog.
In this sentence the boy is the doer (=subject), while the dog is the receiver (=object)
In Passive Voice we can wrte it as:
The dog was fed by the boy.
Here the object of the action - the dog is the subject of the sentence, while the doer is added in a "by" clause. He could also be omitted. Sentence The dog was fed is also correct and does not inform about the doer (It does not say who fed the dog)