How can chromosomes be damaged?
there are five ways in which chromosome are damaged with reasons.
there are following five types of damages to chromosome structure
translocation-happens during division phase where one arm of the chromosome is attached to non sister chromosome.
triosomy- happens due to translocation or fault in meiosis where the chromosome is not separated and division proceeds (fault in division)
inversion- happens during prophase I of meiosis as the fragment is inverted in the sequence.
deletion- happens during synthesis naturally or if a mutagen is present which interferes with synthesis of genome.
Duplication- happens during synthesis of DNA. where there is repetitive synthesis of the same fragment by replication machinery.
1. insertions are also common but to which extent it happens i do not know
2. mitosis is also involved in chromosomal damage where either a chromosome is completely lost in the process, resulting in damage to chromosome set in the organism.