How can rate of reaction be increased?
Several factors can increase the rate of a chemical reaction. In general, anything that increases the number of collisions between particles will increase the reaction rate, and anything that decreases the number of collisions between particles will decrease the chemical reaction rate.
INCREASE THE CONCENTRATION OF THE REACTANTS
A higher concentration of reactants leads to more collisions per unit time and leads to an increasing reaction rate.
INCREASE THE PRESSURE OF GASEOUS REACTANTS
Changing the pressure of gaseous reactants is, in effect, changing their concentration. The increased number of collisions caused by a higher pressure generally increases the reaction rate.
DECREASE THE PARTICLE SIZE OF SOLID REACTANTS
Reaction depends on collisions. If a reactant is a solid, grinding it into smaller particles will increase the surface area. The more surface area on which collisions can occur, the faster the reaction.
INCREASE THE TEMPERATURE
Usually, an increase in temperature causes an increase in the reaction rate. A higher temperature means that the molecules have a higher average kinetic energy and more collisions per unit time. It also increases the number of collisions that have enough energy to cause a reaction to take place.
CHANGE THE SOLVENT
The rate of a chemical reaction depends on the medium in which the reaction occurs. The reaction may go faster in an aqueous solution than in an organic solvent or in a more polar solvent.
ADD A CATALYST
Catalysts lower the activation energy of a chemical reaction and increase the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed in the process. They do this by an alternative mechanism that has a lower activation energy.