How do features on the earth's surface affect climate?
Features on the Earth's surface affect the rate of evaporation and the wind.
These effects can cause huge changes in the temperature, precipitation, and humidity of a region. An example is when a storm encounters a mountain range. The clouds can not go over the mountains, so the upwind side receives plentiful rainfall while the downwind side gets little to no rain.
An example of this occurs during the monsoon season. The monsoon travels over the Indian Ocean and batters India, Bangladesh, and Myanmar. However, once it reaches the Himalayas, it can't go any further. This is why the land north of the Himalayas are very dry. It's also the reason why the Gobi Desert has been formed.