How do the various types of electromagnetic radiation differ from each other?
I hope that I didn't confuse you!
Well, this is a very interesting question although quite complicated!
I would say that the various types of electromagnetic radiations differ primarily for the way they were produced.
According to the way waves are produced they fall into an interval of frequencies that covers the range of the waves produced in that way:
For example a radio wave is produced by an oscillating dipole (basically an electron going up and down along an antenna) while an X-ray is produced when an electron at high velocity is suddenly decelerated (impacting against a target for example).