How do you name polyatomic ion formulas?

1 Answer
May 8, 2018

Answer:

By the level of oxidation in the atoms

Explanation:

ate indicates normal maximum oxidation number

Nitrate = # NO_3^-1 # # N = +5# the maximum oxidation state

ite indicates less than the normal maximum oxidation number

Nitrite = # NO_2^-1# # N = +3 # only the 3 p electrons are oxidized This is less than maximum oxidation number of +5

Hyper means more than normal maximum oxidation

HyperChlorate = # ClO_4^-1# # Cl = +7#

All seven valance electrons of Chlorine are oxidized

Chlorate = # ClO_3^-1 # # Cl = +5#

The 5 p electrons are oxidized and not the 2 s electrons which are more stable this is the maximum normal positive oxidation number of Chlorine

ite is less than normal maximum oxidation

Chlorite = # ClO_2^-1# # Cl = +3 #

The one single p electron and 1 set of paired p electrons are oxidized this is less than the normal oxidation of Chlorine

Hypo is much less than the normal maximum oxidation

HypoChlorite = # ClO^-1# #Cl =+1#

Only the one single p electron is oxidized. This is much lower than normal oxidation number of Chlorine. ( note the single p electron of Chlorine is normally reduced giving Chlorine ion # Cl^-1# a charge of -1