How do you read periodic table charges?
Typically, metals are electron-rich materials, and are oxidized to form cations...
An atom COULD lose ALL of its valence electrons...and the number of valence electrons is given by the Group number of the element, i.e. the vertical column in which the element is located on the Periodic Table.. Metals are electron rich, and TEND to form
On the other hand, non-metals are electron-poor materials...these come from the RIGHT HAND side of the Table as we face it...and these tend to be oxidizing, i.e. they typically GAIN electrons .... certainly the SMALL atoms, oxygen, and fluorine, are POTENT oxidants. Most of the time the ion of a main group element shares the same electronic configuration as the NEXT (non-metal) or LAST (metal) Noble Gas....